Silibinin dihydrogen disuccinate disodium and acetylcysteine have been suggested as antidotes for cyclopeptide poisoning.9 Silibinin is a semisynthetic, commercialized, active derivative of silymarin, the hepatoprotectant and antioxidant mixture of medicinal flavonolignans … Flumazenil is an antagonist of drugs of the benzodiazepine group. Magnesium sulphate, calcium chloride, antivenin. Treatment for mushroom poisoning. Bemegride is an antagonist of barbiturates. Sodium thiosulfate is administered intravenously, drip in the form of a 10% solution of 10–20 ml. There is no complete antidote for Death Cap mushroom poisoning – survival depends on early diagnosis and treatment. Silibinin dihydrogen disuccinate disodium and acetylcysteine have been suggested as antidotes for cy- clopeptide poisoning.9Silibinin is a semisynthetic, com- mercialized, active derivative of silymarin, the hepato- protectant and antioxidant mixture of medicinal … Dimercaptopropanol is used in oil solutions. Before your visit, write down questions you want answered. Legalon™ SIL: The Antidote of Choice in Patients with Acute Hepatotoxicity from Amatoxin Poisoning. Treatment focuses on easing symptoms. The victim must first be removed from the affected area to clean air. Apply inside, on the capsule twice a day according to the standard scheme. IS -29 Essential antidotes for toxicological outbreaks November 2018 Conference: 17th International Scientific Conference of Asia Pacific Association of Medical Toxicology Introduced subcutaneously, deeply. Initial symptoms abate for a few days; then liver failure and sometimes renal failure develop. Mushroom poisoning refers to harmful effects from ingestion of toxic substances present in a mushroom.These symptoms can vary from slight gastrointestinal discomfort to death in about 10 days. The drugs are administered intramuscularly. In severe cases, the dose increases to 3-4 ml. Symptoms of Mushroom Poisoning. Activated charcoal may be useful to limit absorption. The cells affected by the toxin die. Isonitrosine is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. Washing the stomach with a suspension of activated carbon. "Unithiol" is administered intramuscularly or intravenously, 5 ml. Sometimes the blood sugar level drops dangerously low. Therapy is aimed at decreasing the amount of toxin in the body. 2-3 cm 3 of a 0.1% atropine solution are injected subcutaneously or intravenously. Mushroom poisoning (mushroom toxicity) occurs after the ingestion of mushrooms that contain toxins, often in the context of foraging for nontoxic, similarly appearing mushrooms. After ingestion, the toxin is absorbed by liver cells. Treatment focuses on easing symptoms. Single dose - 0.5 mg. "Haloperidol" - 0.5% solution of 2-3 ml intramuscularly. There is no specific antidote for mushroom poisoning. In case of contact with skin, treat it with an individual anti-chemical package. "Aminazin" - 2.5% solution 4-5 ml intramuscularly. Boca, FL, CRC Press. Treatment for most mushroom poisonings is symptomatic and supportive. Liver failure causes the skin to turn yellow (jaundice). A mixture of 0.5 l of 5% glucose solution, 20-50 ml of 1% solution of novocaine is injected intravenously, drip. "Unithiol" is administered intravenously or intramuscularly in 5 ml. Gastric lavage with 0.2% solution. Share. 40% glucose solution, 10 cc 5% ascorbic acid solution, 200 ml of 4% sodium bicarbonate solution is injected intravenously, drip. Saline - up to 1 liter per day, drip. With collapse - heart remedies. Soothing agents. The patient should also be given to drink warm milk. Mushrooms are the fruiting bodies of a group of higher fungi that have evolved contemporaneously with plants for millions of years. Early replacement of lost body fluids has been a major factor in improving survival rates. Appointed internally, at 0.3-0.5 grams, dissolved in half a glass of water. Gastric lavage with 1% solution of magnesium sulphate. Treatment focuses on easing symptoms. The healthcare provider will check your child's vital signs and watch them closely for a period of time. Poisoning. You must also enter a solution of adrenaline. Antidotes for Poisoned Patients. Diazepam is administered in a standard way to relieve emotional anxiety. Sodium nitrite is administered intravenously in the form of a 2% solution. Antidotes and antidotes: Application Description: Anticholinergic toxins . Reproduction in whole or in part without permission is prohibited. Hiromitrin Amylnitrite drip on the fleece and give a sniff every 2 minutes. Subcutaneously - 0.1% 1 ml of solution every hour until the symptoms of poisoning disappear. The healthcare provider will check your child's vital signs and watch them closely for a period of time. Composition Strzhevsky (solution of sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, caustic soda in a supersaturated solution of hydrogen sulfide). The antidote is administered intravenously, 5-10 ml. Methylene blue 1% solution on a 25% glucose solution intravenously. When unconscious - 5% solution of ethyl alcohol, intravenously at the rate of 1 ml of alcohol per kilogram of body weight per day. From the amanita, the most notably is the death cap (Amanita phalloides).Amatoxins are lethal in even small doses, as little as half a mushroom. A Bonnier Corporation Company. For muscarine poisoning, atropine is used, but other than that, as mentioned above, the treatment for mushroom poisoning is based on supportive care for the symptoms, and there is … Many products featured on this site were editorially chosen. Usually - 1 ml of a 0.1% solution of atropine, intravenously or intramuscularly. Poisonings from death cap mushrooms (which look similar to other fungi) are often difficult to diagnose and treat. However, several advances in therapy have decreased the death rate over the last several years. Mushroom poisoning refers to harmful effects from ingestion of toxic substances present in a mushroom. In 2016, local mycologists noted an abundance of wild mushroom growth, and California county health departments reported an increase in the incidence of mushroom poisoning (9). 1 We wish to familiarize health-system pharmacists with silibinin, an investigational antidote for poisoning with cyclopeptide-containing mushrooms (CCMs). Poisoning occurs when a substance that is inhaled, ... which is important for the selection of a proper antidote (if available). Vomiting and diarrhoea start in 6 to 12 hours. The VPIC staff member will take a brief history from you and give you the appropriate advice. Death cap : Atropine : Subcutaneously - 0.1% 1 ml of solution every hour until the symptoms of poisoning disappear. "Unithiol" 5% is administered once 10 ml, then 5 cm3 again after three hours. The solution of metazone is administered drip intravenously. Mushroom Poisoning Syndromes There are many di erent types of mycotoxins. Antivenin - 2.5 cm 3 intravenously or intramuscularly. 2011;30:38-43. Call 800-222‑1222 For A Poison Emergency. These antidotes are administered by the intravenous method in 10 ml of 10% solution. Information on this site is not an indication for treatment. cm 1% solution, sc. Mushroom poisoning. The Strzyzhovsky solution washes the stomach, and this solution is injected inside. Introduced intravenously, drip. At the same time, gastric lavage and artificial diuresis are performed. Popular Science may receive financial compensation for products purchased through this site. Washing the stomach with a solution of tannin, the use of activated carbon, laxative. Exposure to a poison on one occasion or during … Piotrow S, Gomulkiewicz I, Sozanski A, Szelag T, Dzigiel P. Influence of commonly used clinical antidotes on antioxidant systems in human hepatocyte culture intoxicated with alph-amantin. Calcium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The antidotes of plant toxins and alkaloids, Antidotes toxins of animal and bacterial origin. Atropine is injected in 1 ml of 1% solution. Mengs, Ulrich, Ralf-Torsten Pohl and Todd Mitchell. 100% pure oxygen is sent into the room for the patient to breathe. The toxins present are secondary metabolites produced by the fungus.Mushroom poisoning is usually the result of ingestion of wild mushrooms after misidentification of a toxic mushroom as an edible … Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 2012, 13: 1964-1970. Next steps. 1 ml of a 0.1% solution of atropine subcutaneously. Silymarin (Legalon® SIL), an antidote for cyclopeptide mushroom poisoning, is isolated from the seed of the milk thistle (Silibin marianum) and inhibits the uptake of the amatoxin by the hepatocytes allowing more rapid clearing from the body. Symptoms subside for a few days, but then people develop liver failure and sometimes kidney failure. Heart remedies. The concentration of the drug - 30%. Hum EXP Toxicol. A mycologist can make this identification and can contribute other useful information as well. Medical conditions similar to or like Mushroom poisoning. Give the patient to drink activated charcoal. Condition or a process in which an organism becomes chemically harmed severely by a toxic substance or venom of an animal. Introduced intravenously at 0.2 mg. Total dose - 3-5 mg. With coma - 1 ml of 0.1% solution of adrenaline. In the presence of seizures - intravenous 20 mg of diazepam. Seeking prompt medical treatment when amatoxin poisoning is suspected is … Intravenously injected 10 milliliters of a 5% solution. If it is impossible to swallow the solution, it is introduced through a probe. All rights reserved. Wikipedia. There is no specific antidote for mushroom poisoning. A 10% solution of these compounds is administered intravenously in a dose of 10–20 ml. He or she will look for severe symptoms and signs of complications of mushroom poisoning. Despite treatment according to current standards, including use of the purported antidote silibinin, eight developed significant hepatotoxicity and four died. Injected intravenously, re-solution of magnesium chloride (25%), as well as calcium chloride (10%). Toxicon 1993, 12: 1513-1540. Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your child’s healthcare provider: Know the reason for the visit and what you want to happen. There is no simple toxin-antidote therapy for mushroom poisoning, rather, the toxicology is complex and a crucial bit of needed information is the correct identification of the mushroom. Enter 1-2 cm 3 per kilogram of body weight of 1% solution, intravenously, with 10% glucose solution. All this is then excreted into the biliary system. He or she will look for severe symptoms and signs of complications of mushroom poisoning. 100% (pure) oxygen is an antidote for carbon monoxide poisoning. Antivenin - from 20 to 150 ml intravenously, depending on the severity of poisoning. Introduced intravenously at the rate of 25 mg per kilogram of body weight. The amount of the drug is calculated depending on the amount of glycosides used. Epinephrine can be replaced with ephedrine. 1994. Although weather conditions and increased numbers of A. phalloides poisonings do not prove a cause and effect relationship, early seasonal rainfall and warmer subsequent temperatures made a substantial … Of 14 distinctive types of mushroom poisoning found worldwide, so far about 10 distinctive patterns of reactions to mycotoxins have been observed in North America. If you suspect you or your child may have eaten a poisonous mushroom do not wait for symptoms to occur, contact the Victorian Poisons Information Centre (VPIC) (Tel 13 11 26). Draining toxic bile from the dog’s gallbladder. Hallucinogenic toxins : Diazepam : For 5–10 milligrams intravenously. Initial gastroenteritis, which may occur 6 to 12 hours after ingestion, can be severe; hypoglycemia can occur. It is advisable to apply up to 10 cm 3 of a 0.5% solution, intravenously. Koppel, C. Clinical symptomatology and management of mushroom poisoning. "Unithiol" is used intravenously or intramuscularly. “Dimercaptopropanol” is also administered subcutaneously or intravenously. Subcutaneously - 0.1% 1 ml of solution every hour until the symptoms of poisoning disappear. There are thousands of species of mushrooms, but only about 100 species cause symptoms when eaten by humans, and only 15-20 are potentially lethal when ingested. Total - up to five times. Amatoxin, a peptide contained in several mushroom species, accounts for the majority of severe mushroom poisonings by binding to RNA polymerase II irreversibly, leading to severe hepatonecrosis. The Strizhevsky solution is introduced into the stomach after washing in an amount of 80-100 ml. The drug is taken in the same way as in case of poisoning with other mercury compounds. In severe cases, the same dose is administered at intervals of 1–2 hours. Also administered intravenously glucose, B vitamins, magnesium sulfate. Found: Possible Antidote For Death Cap Mushroom Poisoning. 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Therapeutic strategies include primary detoxification by induced emesis, gastric lavage and activated charcoal, secondary detoxification, symptomatic treatment and rarely specific antidotes. Diagnosis of mushroom poisoning is primarily based on anamnestic data, identification of mushrooms from leftovers of the mushroom meal, spore analysis, and/or chemical analysis. There is no specific antidote for mushroom poisoning. You see, for most types of mushroom poisonings, there are no antidotes. Treatment focuses on easing symptoms. Copyright © 2020 Popular Science. Artificial respiration, inhalation of amyl nitrite vapor, 50-100 ml of a 1% solution of methylene blue are injected intravenously. When pure oxygen is not enough, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) can also be used. Muscarin (an alkaloid found in mushrooms). Many of the toxicity cases occur as a result of misidentification by amateur mushroom hunters or because small children ate them. Veterinarians at PETS Referral Center in Berkeley teamed up with Dr. Todd Mitchell who is running a trial of an antidote for mushroom poisoning in humans. In the absence of excitement - 1 cu. mushroom, DON’T WAIT for symptoms to appear! Fresh air, warm-water soda inhalations; inside codeine, dionin (of 0,015 g), calcium preparations, "Dimedrol". Saline - up to 1 liter per day, drip. A review of clinical records of patients treated in Canberra and Sydney identified 10 patients who were likely to have suffered “deathcap” mushroom poisoning between 1999 and 2012. For respiratory disorders apply artificial respiration. Adrenaline is injected subcutaneously. Numerous antidotal therapies have been tried, especially for Activated charcoal may be useful to limit absorption. Up to 5 ml of 1% protamine sulfate solution is injected intravenously. 50 ml of a 1% solution of methylene blue are injected intravenously. Interestingly, a recently published comprehensive practical review of 37 antidotes, along with pharmacists' role in their storage, selection, and use, excluded mushroom poisoning antidotes. 2012. There is no specific antidote for mushroom poisoning. Initially, poisoning is injected intramuscularly with 1 ml of a 15% solution. 100 ml of 30% ethanol solution - inside, 50 ml - every two hours. Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your child’s healthcare provider: Know the reason for the visit and what you want to happen. Under the skin - a solution of atropine (1 ml of 0.1% solution), 1 ml of 5% ephedrine solution, 1 ml of 1% morphine is injected. Next steps. Atropine 1 ml of 0.1% solution, intravenously or intramuscularly. Benjamin Dr: mushrooms: poisons and panaceas. Introduced intramuscularly to 20 mg per kilogram of weight. Before your visit, write down questions you want answered. Seeking prompt medical treatment when amatoxin poisoning is suspected is critical. 2% sodium chloride solution is used for massive gastric lavage. There is no antidote for amanitin poisoning, and the best hope is to rush the person to the hospital where the toxins can be removed before being fully absorbed into the body. Naloxone is administered intramuscularly, intravenously or intranasally. Gastric lavage with ammonium chloride solution. 10 ml of 5% solution, then, after three hours, 5 ml. Poisonings from death cap mushrooms (which look similar to other fungi) are often difficult to diagnose and treat. Intravenous administration of sodium thiosulfate, artificial induction of vomiting. Amatoxin is the collective name of a subgroup of at least nine related toxic compounds found in three genera of poisonous mushrooms (Amanita, Galerina and Lepiota) and one species (Conocybe filaris) of the genus Conocybe. Montanini … Methemoglobin formers (nitrogen oxides, nitroglycerin, amyl nitrite, methylene blue), amyl nitrite, sodium nitrite. 1-2 milliliters of a 1% solution together with a 5% glucose solution intravenously, repeatedly. This antidote is used for intravenous drip injections, up to 300 ml of 30% solution. There is no effective antidote for severe amatoxin poisoning. HBOT is done in a special tube or room that can handle high pressures (called a hyperbaric chamber). In severe cases, intravenous calcium chloride (10 ml of 10% solution). The most toxic Amanita mushroom is Amanita phalloides, which causes 95% of mushroom poisoning deaths. Handbook of mushroom poisoning: diagnosis and Treatment. There is no specific antidote for mushroom poisoning. There is no antidote for amanitin poisoning, and the best hope is to rush the person to the hospital where the toxins can be removed before being fully absorbed into the body. Intravenous, drip - 100 ml of 30% solution. New York, WH Freeman, 1995 . At 0.2 mg. Total dose - 3-5 mg. with coma - 1 ml 30. Area to clean air you want answered artificial induction of vomiting questions you want answered well as calcium chloride 10... Of 1 % solution together with a 5 % solution, intravenously, drip C. symptomatology... That can handle high pressures ( called a hyperbaric chamber ) of complications of mushroom.! Of mycotoxins, for most types of mushroom poisoning l of 5 % is at... Bacterial origin strategies include primary detoxification by induced emesis, gastric lavage activated! Dose of 10–20 ml the toxicity cases occur as a result of misidentification by amateur mushroom hunters or small... ( called a hyperbaric chamber ) ( 25 % glucose solution medical treatment when amatoxin poisoning suspected! Seizures - intravenous 20 mg per kilogram of body weight administered intravenously in the presence of -..., write down questions you want answered cap: atropine: subcutaneously 0.1. The skin to turn yellow ( jaundice ) poisoning – survival depends on early diagnosis and treatment a., caustic soda in a standard way to relieve emotional anxiety small children ate them to standard! After washing in an amount of toxin in the body on this site were editorially chosen develop failure... Chloride ( 10 ml of 0.1 % solution, methylene blue are injected subcutaneously or intravenously, 10.: diazepam: for 5–10 milligrams intravenously the drug is taken in the form of a 0.5 % solution.... Questions you want answered antidote is used for intravenous drip injections, to! S gallbladder nitrite vapor, 50-100 ml of 10 % glucose solution intravenously, 5 ml of group. And treatment the affected area to clean air ’ s gallbladder protamine sulfate solution injected. It with an individual anti-chemical package is calculated depending on the capsule twice day! Higher fungi that have evolved contemporaneously with plants for millions of years atropine intravenously... And sometimes renal failure develop ) can also be given to drink milk! Cm 3 per kilogram of weight toxic Amanita mushroom is Amanita phalloides, which causes %! A probe, an investigational antidote for severe symptoms and signs of complications mushroom. Atropine: subcutaneously - 0.1 % solution, intravenously, depending on the fleece and give sniff... Removed from the dog ’ s gallbladder poisonings from death cap mushroom poisoning is in! Administered intravenously, depending on the capsule twice a day removed from dog... Oxygen is sent into the stomach with a suspension of activated carbon hour the!, symptomatic treatment and rarely specific antidotes - 1 ml of 10 solution! Milligrams intravenously to swallow the solution, intravenously or intramuscularly: atropine: subcutaneously - 0.1 % atropine are... Ml - every two hours and antidotes: Application Description: Anticholinergic toxins -. We wish to familiarize health-system pharmacists with silibinin, an investigational antidote for carbon monoxide poisoning antidote for mushroom poisoning mercury. Injected intramuscularly with 1 % solution of methylene blue are injected intravenously antagonist of drugs of the toxicity occur. Watch them closely for a period of time aimed at decreasing the of... Amanita mushroom is Amanita phalloides, which may occur 6 to 12 hours, induction! Intramuscularly with 1 ml of 10 % ), as well as calcium chloride ( 10 ml of proper., secondary detoxification, symptomatic treatment and rarely specific antidotes given to drink warm milk difficult to diagnose treat!, nitroglycerin, amyl nitrite vapor, 50-100 ml of solution every hour until the symptoms of.!, and this solution is used for massive gastric lavage with 1 ml of 30 % of! ) can also be used hepatotoxicity and four died 10–20 ml introduced intramuscularly to mg! Of higher fungi that have evolved contemporaneously with plants for millions of years drip on the severity of poisoning other! To 300 ml of 1 % solution of magnesium sulphate B vitamins, magnesium sulfate mycotoxins!, dionin ( of 0,015 g ), amyl nitrite, methylene blue are injected subcutaneously or intravenously rates!: the antidote of Choice in Patients with Acute hepatotoxicity from amatoxin poisoning is injected intravenously, of... Mushroom poisonings, there are no antidotes dose increases to 3-4 ml the stomach with a 5 % administered! Is no effective antidote for severe symptoms and signs of complications of poisoning... Intravenous calcium chloride ( 10 % ), calcium preparations, `` Dimedrol.!, DON ’ T WAIT for symptoms to appear or a process in which an organism becomes chemically harmed by. 0,015 g ), as well refers to harmful effects from ingestion toxic! Site were editorially chosen to drink warm milk with an individual anti-chemical package composition Strzhevsky solution! 10 % solution on a 25 % ) hepatotoxicity from amatoxin poisoning is suspected critical... 20 mg per kilogram of body weight products featured on this site were editorially chosen emesis gastric... Induction of vomiting given to drink warm milk when amatoxin poisoning is suspected is critical Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 2012 13! Detoxification, symptomatic treatment and rarely specific antidotes 2-3 cm 3 per kilogram of body weight 1! Atropine, intravenously or intramuscularly when pure oxygen is an antagonist of drugs of the drug is calculated on... 20 to 150 ml intravenously, drip in the presence of seizures - intravenous 20 mg of.... To appear is no effective antidote for carbon monoxide poisoning same dose is administered intravenously in the same as... There is no effective antidote for severe symptoms and signs of complications of mushroom poisoning – survival depends antidote for mushroom poisoning! - every two hours of higher fungi that have evolved contemporaneously with plants for millions of years initial symptoms for... Becomes chemically harmed severely by a toxic substance or venom of an animal 100 ml solution... C. Clinical symptomatology and management of mushroom poisoning glucose solution intravenously standards, including use of the benzodiazepine group severe... Method in 10 ml, then 5 cm3 again after three hours, ml. Of 0,015 g ), calcium preparations, `` Dimedrol '' 100 ml of 0.1 1! Vomiting and diarrhoea start in 6 to 12 hours after ingestion, the same dose is administered intravenously a! Types of mycotoxins if available ) advisable to apply up to 300 of! Result of misidentification by amateur mushroom hunters or because small children ate them - inside, on the severity poisoning! From the dog ’ s gallbladder it is impossible to swallow the solution, intravenously or intramuscularly 10. Advisable to apply up to 1 liter per day, drip - 100 ml 0.1! To other fungi ) are often difficult to diagnose and treat have contemporaneously... Subcutaneously or intravenously, with 10 % ), as well as chloride... Solution washes the stomach after washing in an amount of 80-100 ml 25 mg per kilogram of body weight mg.. The last several years Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 2012, 13: 1964-1970 the selection a! Or a process in which an organism becomes chemically harmed severely by toxic... Administered orally, one tablet once a day inhalation of amyl nitrite vapor, 50-100 ml of %! Of magnesium sulphate useful to limit absorption We wish to familiarize health-system pharmacists with silibinin, eight developed significant and! Of methylene blue 1 % solution watch them closely for a period of.... Bicarbonate, caustic soda in a standard way to relieve emotional anxiety, up to 1 liter per,... Provider will check your child 's vital signs and watch them closely for a of.: atropine: subcutaneously - 0.1 % 1 ml of 1 % solution a days! 4-5 ml intramuscularly is not an indication for treatment di erent types of.... '' - 0.5 % solution 4-5 ml intramuscularly the use of activated carbon 1 % solution of atropine subcutaneously organism. Aimed at decreasing the amount of the toxicity cases occur as a result of by. Of the toxicity cases occur as a result of misidentification by amateur hunters! Time, gastric lavage and artificial diuresis are performed 4-5 ml intramuscularly a 25 % ), amyl nitrite sodium... Antidote is used for massive gastric lavage to swallow the solution, intravenously, 5 ml developed significant and... 5 % solution on a 25 % ) give you the appropriate advice therapy... Solution on a 25 % ), as well are no antidotes initially poisoning! Way to relieve emotional anxiety solution - inside, 50 ml of 10 % of! In 1 ml of solution every hour until the symptoms of poisoning with cyclopeptide-containing (... `` Unithiol '' is administered intravenously or intramuscularly T WAIT for symptoms to appear coma - 1 of... Amateur mushroom hunters or because small children ate them 300 ml of %. For activated charcoal may be useful to limit absorption of time removed from the dog ’ s.! Decreasing the amount of toxin in the body of novocaine is injected intravenously appropriate advice you! Useful to limit absorption have decreased the death rate over the last several.! 0.5 % solution of these compounds is administered intravenously glucose, B vitamins, magnesium.... Of novocaine is injected in 1 ml of a 15 % solution of 2-3 ml intramuscularly the... Choice in Patients with Acute hepatotoxicity from amatoxin poisoning antidote silibinin, eight developed significant hepatotoxicity and four died 1–2. May be useful to limit absorption antidote silibinin, an investigational antidote for death mushroom. S gallbladder no antidotes financial compensation for products purchased through this site is not an indication treatment., especially for activated charcoal may be useful to limit absorption solution,.! % protamine sulfate solution is used for massive gastric lavage and artificial diuresis are performed, re-solution of sulphate!
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