Celtis occidentalis. Hackberries provide a food source for a wide variety of birds and wildlife, including game birds and opossum. Mature gray bark develops corky ridges and warty texture. Celtis occidentalis, commonly called common hackberry, is a medium to large sized deciduous tree that typically grows 40-60 (less frequently to 100) tall with upright-arching branching and a rounded spreading crown. Female flowers give way to an often abundant fruit crop of round fleshy berry-like drupes maturing to deep purple. Its shade tolerance is greatly dependent on conditions. Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Full Sun. Although the galls do not hurt the tree, they often significantly disfigure the leaves. Hackberry has characteristic wart-like bark and dark-red to purple fruits, lending itself well to bird-centric landscapes. Hackberry is deciduous and perennial tree comprising the flowering plant genus Celtis in the plant family Ulmaceae. In the best conditions in the southern Mississippi Valleyarea, it can grow to 40 metres (130 ft). 3' - 4' Sun Preference. Hackberry is only occasionally used as a street or landscape tree, although its tolerance for urban conditions makes it well suited to this role. [5], There are five stamens, which are hypogynous; the filaments are white, smooth, slightly flattened and gradually narrowed from base to apex; in the bud incurved, bringing the anthers face to face, as flower opens they abruptly straighten; anthers extrorse, oblong, two-celled; cells opening longitudinally. It is common in Missouri where it typically occurs statewide in low woods along streams and in drier upland slopes (Steyemark). A. Soil Preference. No terminal bud is formed. Native Range: Central and northeastern North America, Suggested Use: Shade Tree, Street Tree, Rain Garden, Tolerate: Drought, Clay Soil, Wet Soil, Air Pollution. Description. This tree is a U.S. native that is widely distributed throughout the east and midwest. It has a straight central trunk and an ovoid crown with a cylindrical shape once mature. Also tolerates wind, many urban pollutants and a wide range of soil conditions, including both wet, dry and poor soils. Pronunciation: SELL-tiss ock-sih-den-TAY-liss. General Information. 40' - 60' Mature Spread. cordata Willd. With age, the bark becomes increasingly scaly andrough-textured. crassifolia (Lam.) The tree serves as a butterfly larval host particularly the hackberry emperor.[10]. Most seeds are dispersed by animals, but some seeds are also dispersed by water. The hackberry has simple, alternate, pointed, finely toothed leaves. for edible fruit; Liabilities. Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. 1). Hackberry nipple gall is so common in the St. Louis area that it is often used as an aid in identifying the tree. [5], Yellow leaves of a tree in autumn at the Jevremonac Botanical Garden, The flowers are greenish and appear in May, soon after the leaves. 2) Origin: native to North America. The Tree is a deciduous tree, it will be up to 25 m (82 ft) high. Notes: Hackberry is a common tree of deciduous woods and floodplains and is becoming more common in urban landscapes, tolerating drought and a … The leaves are eaten by four gall-producing insects of the genus Pachypsylla, which do not cause serious damage to the tree. Family: Ulmaceae. Ovate to oblong-ovate, rough-textured, glossy to dull green leaves (2-5” long) have mostly uneven leaf bases and are coarsely toothed from midleaf to acuminate (sharply pointed) tip. The bark is light brown or silvery gray, broken on the surface into thick appressed scales and sometimes roughened with excrescences; the pattern is very distinctive. Scientific name: Celtis occidentalis. The fruit is a fleshy, oblong drupe, 1⁄4 to 3⁄8 in (0.64 to 0.95 cm) long, tipped with the remnants of style, dark purple when ripe. [5], The calyx is light yellow green, five-lobed, divided nearly to the base; lobes linear, acute, more or less cut at the apex, often tipped with hairs, imbricate in bud. The fruit temporarily stains walks. The fruit is a reddish drupe (the same form as a cherry, a fleshy fruit with a hard inner layer around the seed). Forms characteristic corky ridges and warts on trunk and branches. A single fleshy berry-like drupe, 1/3 inch diameter, starts out green changing to a deep purple-brown. Although there is little actual overlap, in the western part of its range the common hackberry is sometimes confused with the smaller netleaf hackberry (Celtis reticulata), which has a similar bark. Scientific name: Celtis occidentalis. The roots are fibrous and it grows rapidly. The common hackberry is a medium-sized tree, 9 to 15 metres (30 to 50 ft) in height, with a slender trunk. The Garden wouldn't be the Garden without our Members, Donors and Volunteers. Celtis occidentalis is the tree native to the Northeast that I am familiar with. Gray: CEOCO2: Celtis occidentalis L. var. The fruit is often produced abundantly in Britain, it is about the size of a blackcurrant, but there is very little flesh surrounding a large seed and it is therefore a very fiddly crop. Coins as large as USA quarters can easily be laid flat against the valleys, which may be as deep as an adult human finger. Specific gravity, 0.7287; weight of cu. The tree's pea-sized berries are edible, ripening in early September. Elm family (Ulmaceae) Description:At maturity, this tree is typically 40-80' tall, forming a straightcentral trunkand an ovoid crown. Moderate water needs once established. Celtis occidentalis Common Hackberry. Family: Ulmaceae. The small berries, hackberries, are eaten by a number of birds,[8] including robins and cedar waxwings,[9] and mammals. Seeds can pose clean up problems if trees are sited near sidewalks or patios, however. The common hackberry also has wider leaves that are coarser above than the sugarberry. 249–252. The leaves are ovoid and the flowers are greenish-white. The application of that name to Celtis occidentalis was possibly a result of the early colonists confusion with regard to the small cherry-like appearance of its fruit (Peattie, 1953, 1966). Produces small, dark red drupes about 1/3" in diameter that turn dark purple as they mature in mid-autumn. Known hazards of Celtis occidentalis: It rots easily, making the wood undesirable commercially, although it is occasionally used for fencing and cheap furniture. In the western part of its range, trees may still grow up to 29 m (95 ft). Fruit: Fruit is a round, berry-like drupe, ¼ to nearly ½ inch diameter, ripening from green to dark maroon in late summer. Nature's Heartland: Native Plant...Great Plains. Celtis can tolerate wind, pollution and a wide range of soil conditions, including wet, dry and poor soils. The common hackberry is a medium-sized tree, 9 to 15 metres (30 to 50 ft) in height,[3] with a slender trunk. They generally grow to between 50 and 70 feet tall, though some have been known to reach over a hundred. Mature Height. To be clear there are two species of hackberry, Celtis occidentalis and Celtis laevigata. [5] In the western part of its range, trees may still grow up to 29 m (95 ft). Inside is a single seed. In autumn they turn to a light yellow. The fruits persist throughout the winter if they aren't harvested, offering a long-term source of food for creatures during tough seasons. hackberry Ulmaceae Celtis occidentalis L. symbol: CEOC Leaf: Alternate, simple, ovate, 2 to 5 inches long, serrated margin, pinnately veined, with acuminate tip and an inequilateral base, three distinct veins originate from base, maybe hairy or scruffy, green above and paler and somewhat pubescent below. It has a handsome round-topped head and pendulous branches. Boon, Bill. The mature bark is light gray, rough and corky and the small fruit turns from orange red to purple and is relished by birds. Unlike most fruits, the berries are remarkably high in calories from fat, carbohydrate and protein, and these calories are easily digestible without any cooking or preparation. This is a tough shade tree that grows in a wide range of soils. It prefers rich moist soil, but will grow on gravelly or rocky hillsides. Stipules varying in form, caducous. Hackberry grows in many different habitats, although it prefers bottomlands and soils high in limestone. Undistinguished fall color. Botanical Name: Celtis occidentalis; Common Name: Common Hackberry Cultivars and their differences. 40' - 60' Shipping Height. This tree is a member of the Cannabis (marijuana) family. Deciduous tree. It is common in Missouri where it typically occurs statewide in low woods along streams and in drier upland slopes (Steyemark). They are born on slender drooping pedicels. It remains on the branches during winter. [3] It is a moderately long-lived[3] hardwood[3] with a light-colored wood, yellowish gray to light brown with yellow streaks.[4].
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