[19] Following closely to Husserl’s thoughts of finding the purity of expression, Derrida attempts to separate the indicative and expressive sign by isolating the spatial (external; empirical; indicative) from the temporal (internal; time-consciousness; inner-monologue). Derrida, Voice and Phenomenon, 3,15. To do this, I will first introduce the entanglement between indicative and expressive signs that one encounters through external communicative acts such as writing. Translator's introduction: The germinal structure of Derrida's thought -- Translator's note -- Introduction -- Sign and signs -- The reduction of indication -- Meaning as soliloquy -- Meaning and representation -- The sign and the blink of an eye -- The voice that keeps silent -- The originative supplement. This “dangerous supplement” occurs when the receiving subject substitutes their expressive intention as the conveyor’s. The receiving subject can never experience the conveying subject’s pure expression and intentions through external indications.[16]. [6] Simply put, the expressive sign is entangled with the indicative sign of Bedeutung, where it points to the expression of “want-to-say”. Published in 1967, when Derrida is 37 years old, Voice and Phenomenon appears at the same moment as Of Grammatology and Writing and Difference. the “newness of now”), I am referring to protention. From the perspective of the conveying subject, expressions must pass from their internal solitary life of the soul outwardly into an intended external bodily expressive act. [12] The conveying subject expresses their phenomenological experience within their soul because they desire to express (i.e. What does it mean to call expressions meaningful signs,bedeutsame Zeichen, signs that “want to say” (veulent-dire) something? the expression of their concept of life, philosophy, beliefs, etc.). Unfortunately, I don’t have time fix these errors and I will leave them intact until I have time to edit it. To adapt Derrida’s comment on Husserl’s Logical Investigations, it contains “the germinal structure” of Derrida’s entire thought. [12] Ibid., 32. “If communication of manifestation is essentially indicative, it is so because the presence of the other’s lived-experience is denied to our originary intuition.”, [17] Ibid., “The relation to the other as non-presence is therefore the impurity of expression. [2] The term “soul” implies a living entity who animates / gives life to a nonliving or inanimate object. From the receiving subject’s point of view, the conveyor’s indicative signs are supplemented (imagined) as expressive signs, even when these indications are part of the conveyor’s animating expression that cannot be past onto the receiver through writing. File:Derrida Jacques Speech and Phenomena and Other Essays on Husserl's Theory of Signs 1973.pdf [25] Retention is not constituted by our primal impression because it is an imaginary perception. [17] This leads to a question which carries out the rest of Derrida’s deconstruction on Husserl: if for the conveying subject, expression is only possible from animating the indicative sign as external acts, does she learn anything about herself when she silently expresses through inner monologue which never passes through the outside? [6] Ibid., 40. Derrida's Voice and Phenomenon : an Edinburgh philosophical guide. There is no such thing as “clear writing”. Derrida does not translate bedeutung in his works because (I think) he is trying to show how bedeutung is actually a bedeuten—a “want to say”, where the problem of intentionality via the transcendental arises. Lawlor's fresh translation of Voice and Phenomenon brings new life to Derrida's most seminal work. [26] Thus, inner monologue—the pure expressive self and consciousness—is contaminated by our experience of time. Jacques Derrida was a professor of philosophy at the Sorbonne, the Ecole Normale Supérieure, and the University of California, Irvine, and the author of numerous books including, Copyright 2020 by Northwestern University Press, Studies in Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy. Voice and Phenomenon is a short book, but it can be an overwhelming text, particularly for inexperienced readers of Derrida's work. Derrida spells this out in two major steps. The point, however, seems pretty uncontroversial to me. This suggests that pure self consciousness is pre-constructed through something that is more originary and pre-phenomenological: a trace which constitutes the difference between “now” and its alterity of retention. “Everything in my discourse which is destined to manifest a lived experience to another person must pass through the mediation of the physical side.”, [14] Ibid., 24. [13], Let us return to our initial experience of the term Bedeutung, and the possibility of its contamination. While Writing and Difference collects essays written over a 10 year period on diverse figures and topics, and Of Grammatology aims its deconstruction at “the age of Rousseau,” Voice and Phenomenon shows deconstruction engaged with the most important philosophical movement of the last hundred years: phenomenology. Expressive sign is equivalent to the Saussurean term “Signified”. For now, let us say that expressive signs are only possible by animating indicative signs through a certain “outside” in external discourse of the empirical world. Lawlor’s fresh translation of Voice and Phenomenon brings new life to Derrida’s most seminal work. Second, while an expression is entangled with indication, the opposite is not always true. Abstract. To adapt Derrida's comment on Husserl's Logical Investigations, it contains "the germinal structure" of Derrida's entire thought. Lawlor's fresh translation of Voice and Phenomenon brings new life to Derrida's most seminal work. [Vernon W Cisney] -- This guide aims to explain the structure of Derrida's argument in his book 'Voice and Phenomenon'. [5] Ibid., 7-8. … ———Voice and Phenomenon. In chapter 3 ofSpeech and Phenomena, Derrida grants Husserl the claimed separation of expression and indication in order to follow what Husserl is able to do on this basis. This is a word that was invented by Nambikwara tribe which means “act of writing” or “drawing lines”. Jacques Derrida, Voice and Phenomenon, trans. The aim of this dissertation is to revisit some of the philosophical and theoretical foundations of Jacques Derrida's deconstruction in order to demonstrate their importance for our interpretation of literature, especially of the problem of time in it. Olga Vyacheslavovna Medvedeva, Purdue University. To adapt Derrida's comment on Husserl's Logical Investigations, it contains "the germinal structure" of Derrida's entire thought. Bedeutung is often translated into “signification”. Voice and Phenomenon therefore may be the best introduction to Derrida's thought in general. [29] Ibid., 48. But it is also here, where we recognize the issues of translation. The problem with the word “sign” is that it contains a duality of sense which can at once be indicative and expressive. It is extensively discussed in Of Grammatology when Derrida deconstructs Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s Essay on the Origin of Languages. Voice and Phenomenon Book Summary : Published in 1967, when Derrida is 37 years old, Voice and Phenomenon appears at the same moment as Of Grammatology and Writing and Difference. Jacques Derrida was a .. Derrida rejects Husserl’s compartmentalization of the two signs since the expressive sign cannot be distinguished from indication. Speech and Phenomena VI, “The Voice that Keeps Silence” Derrida is talking about two aspects of language that Husserl identifies: expression (Ausdruck) and indication (Anzeichen). In graduate school, I made the mistake of putting Derrida's Voice and Phenomenon (back then still called Speech and Phenomenon) on the reading list for my doctoral comprehensive exam.As I plowed through the dense text multiple times trying to unpack the many layers of meaning hidden in its succinct argumentation, I was terrified about what questions could arise in the oral exam. One can also say that language is always worked over by history. Indicative sign is equivalent to the Saussurean concept of “Signifier”. Lawlor’s fresh translation of Voice and Phenomenon brings new life to Derrida’s most seminal work. This intended sign passes externally as indication (i.e. For example, I did not address how Derrida translates the German word “Bedeuten” into “Bedeutung” (thanks to the prof who pointed this out). This pure morphology is also found in the word “is” within the fundamental question of philosophy: “What is being?”. Even after reduction, the spatial is never completely reduced because space is in time. Voice and Phenomenon therefore may be the best introduction to Derrida's thought in general. Derrida, Jacques. Allison as Speech and Phenomena .. Only in relation to Husserls philosophy is it possible to understand the novelty of Derridas thinking. The term “soul” implies a living entity who animates / gives life to a nonliving or inanimate object. This is the first guide to clearly explain the structure of his argument, step by step. Among French intellectuals of the late twentieth century, Jacques Derrida stood apart as one of the most controversial and influential. Added an extra link to another (more recent) post where I talk about Voice and Phenomenon. Finally, I will follow Derrida on Husserl’s thoughts to isolate indication from expression only to discover that pure expression is contaminated by the consciousness of time. I also gave my essay a lame title due to it being a sample writing. [25] Derrida, Of Grammatology, 67-73. Published in 1967, Voice and Phenomenon marked a crucial turning point in Derrida… Although schematic, this section succeeds in furnishing and clearly explaining the starting points necessary for understanding Derrida’s argument in Voice and Phenomenon, the most important of which Cisney affirms is the Husserlian distinction between “expression” and “indication” (26), and the related notions of “the living present,” “protention,” and “retention.” (29–32) Speech and Phenomena and Other Essays on Husserl's Theory of Signs has 248 . To adapt Derrida's comment on Husserl's Logical Investigations, it contains "the germinal structure" of Derrida's entire thought. Voice, temporality, and narrative in the thought of Jacques Derrida. Page citations below are taken from this edition. Therefore, we can say that, “communication” is the failure of communication. Then I would no longer have to pass through the mediation of the physical side.”. The concept of “supplement” is used to take the place of what originally lacks within presence. All three books announce the new philosophical project called “deconstruction.” Although Derrida will later regret the fate of the term “deconstruction,” he will use it throughout his career to define his own thinking. This is recognized through Derrida’s use of “Bedeutung” as an example of indication / expression to show how the receiving subject (i.e. Voice and Phenomenon therefore may be the best introduction to Derrida's thought in general. Furthermore, pure expression is no longer possible when the conveying subject attempts to express their solitary life of the soul externally as indication such as Bedeutung. The reason Derrida calls it “want-to-say” is due to the problems of the receiving subject’s intentionality (yours), something which we will see later on in this essay. The conveying subject is the receiving subject who “hears-oneself-speak”. [18] In order to address this issue, Husserl will consequently add the terms “expressive referral” (Hinzeigen) and “indicative referral” (Anzeigen). [4] Since all words points to something, the best example of indicative sign is writing. Translated by Alan Bass. In 20th century, French philosopher Jacques Derrida came to a radical conclusion that our experience of temporality divides self-reflection. The conveying subject internally hears herself speak as she performs external speech or written acts. It has often been considered that the most important part of Derrida’s work consisted in the five books published between 1967 and 1972. Without retention that establishes a difference with the present moment, the punctuality and newness of “now” would not be possible. In order to reduce indication in language and attain once more finally pure expressivity it is therefore necessary to suspend the relation to others. Introduction to the Problem of the Sign in Husserl's Phenomenology, Jacques Derrida, Translated from the French by Leonard Lawlor. [10] Jacques Derrida, Of Grammatology, trans. Published in 1967, Voice and Phenomenon marks a crucial turning point in Derrida’s thinking: it is the culmination Gayatri Chakavorty Spivak (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997), 123. The term “soul” implies a living entity who animates / gives life to a nonliving or inanimate object. Certainly, one can say that inner monologue is where we discover pure expressivity, not only because it is closest to the proximity of the soul where the speaker immediately hears-oneself-speak without distance, but because monologue constitutes subjectivity of self and consciousness as such. [9] If one writes “iekariukedjutu”[10], the term would still be an indication since it points to something, but without any specific expression. [31] Derrida, Of Grammatology, 69. Because Derrida’s writing concerns auto-bio-graphy(writing about one’s life as a form of relation to oneself),many of his writings are auto-biographical. There are a few mistakes in this essay that needs correction. The impurity of expression stems from the lack of intended self-presence of the living soul which cannot be carried into indicated / expressed signs through the outside world because words are inherently dead. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Voice and Phenomenon: Introduction to the Problem of the Sign in Husserl's Phenomenology by Deceased Jacques Derrida (Paperback, 2010) at the best online prices at eBay! Leonard Lawlor (Northwestern University Press, 2011), 70. To say that there is a purity of expression is to recognize how it is contaminated by the movement of time and the becoming-Other within internal discourse. One can easily introduce Husserl, founder of the school of thought known as phenomenology, and move to Derrida… [22] However, for Derrida, such monologue is contaminated by time which is distinguished through the blink of an eye. Here, we are introduced with the issue of inter-subjectivity where the receiving subject is never the speaker and we can only experience the world from our own experience. The Test of the Sign: An Investigation of Voice and Phenomenon Part Four: The Turn in Derrida Looking for Noon at Two O'Clock: An Investigation of Specters of Marx Reception. Husserl refers to the isolation of the spatial as “phenomenological reduction”. Jacques Derrida (/ ˈ d ɛr ɪ d ə /; French: [ʒak dɛʁida]; born Jackie Élie Derrida; July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of phenomenology. [22] Ibid., 68. This will lead us to one of the major themes of post-structural thought on “the crisis of meaning” which is found prevalent in all forms of arts and literature. The “now” is “the deferred effect of which Freud speaks”. Leonard Lawlor (Northwestern University Press, 2011), 70. Of Grammatology. The nice thing about Voice and Phenomenon is that it is short and focused. First, self-expression is no longer pure the moment we express outwardly—even before represented expression arises from the solitary life of the soul. [15] The receiving subject’s intention will contaminate their own experience when they reanimate the indicative sign with an expressive meaning that ignores or greatly deviates from the conveying subject’s intention. Voice and Phenomenon therefore may be the best introduction to Derrida's thought in general. Third, the privilege of an imaginary perception as presence is where Derrida locates the notion of the supplement. “The voice is consciousness”. 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