. Here, csg is the predicate name, and C, S, and G are arguments. /Length 656 stream beliefs? /F2 4 0 R >> >> _J (�™€‰ÔèC`¤DÆ8ô[_¾¶añÕ’ Ùù�¢b+>¯«®o#Jxù37‘àçÑDñEDüğëi]•İ¾ áÓrSõ›~=7lV°Ïp»µ„ LêA' The value of the negation of a sentence is T if the value of the sentence is F, and F if the value of the sentence is T. 7. ,~v¾ “�š| Propositional and Predicate Calculus gives students the basis for further study of mathematical logic and the use of formal languages in other subjects. Each function f of arity m is defined as a function I(f) : Dm D. 4. ����\k" �z�&�L$I��a-���� g ��8U=z � u��`����%�0��#�*��97՘��w)�I�][g��1h,IRg���Nؙ��'���ü6e�X�7���P�v>�4�ֵ3�Fk The limit of sin (x) =x as x approaches 0 is 1. Predicate Calculus is more general than Propositional Calculus: it allows variables, quantifiers, and relations. >> endobj /GS1 7 0 R – Expresses a predicate involving the argument(s) – Becomes a proposition when values are assigned to the arguments . –What is the truth value of Q(2,2,3)? In predicate calculus, only 1 ! /MediaBox [0 0 595.276 841.89] Chapter 6: Predicate Calculus: Deductive Systems October 26, 2008. Show all. The Syntax of Predicate Logic LX 502 – Semantics I October 11, 2008 1. The value of the truth symbol “true” is T, and “false” is F. 5. /Filter /FlateDecode /Font << /F17 4 0 R /F18 5 0 R /F15 6 0 R >> Epistemological commitment: What states of knowledge? x 3 is a bijection. >> endobj /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] endobj /Type /Page Logic vs Predicate Calculus Propositional Logic: World consists of propositions . cal • Note: Although these lecture notes mirror the discussion from the textbook, they do not replace the textbook (or vice versa). /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB ] endobj Why Predicate Logic? 3 0 obj A predicate is an expression of one or more variables defined on some specific domain. objects? Predicate Calculus - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. CPS331 Lecture: The Predicate Calculus last revised 1/21/10 Objectives: 1. /ExtGState << The value of an atomic sentence is either T or F, as determined by the interpretation I. To introduce formalization of knowledge using predicate calculus 4. 8 0 obj << 1. Consider the following statement. 3 0 obj << Logic is the study of valid inference.Predicate calculus, or predicate logic, is a kind of mathematical logic, which was developed to provide a logical foundation for mathematics, but has been used for inference in other domains. << xڝUK��0��W��H[��� �����=dSw)�nⰔ_�$�Kӆ�rHb����7��ӊ"ET`���X��j5�JE��Q,�@�C�����b)V�ED�ԌcA���+��������ma�l�Bϣi�+*�D߮H,�H����DBDB-�8�oVo>Q����h�6; 3X0 %PDF-1.2 /Length 736 – Terms – Predicates – Quantifiers (universal or existential quantifiers i.e. /Length 345 (First-Order Predicate Calculus) 2 Propositional vs. Predicate Logic •In propositional logic, each possible atomic fact requires a separate unique propositional symbol. Ram is a student. It is usual to write these predicates in between their arguments: 2 <3. /Resources 1 0 R Q –How many values of (x,y,z) make the predicate true? Predicate Calculus The logic we have learned so far goes only a little bit beyond Aristotle's logic. predicate calculus expressions (cont’d) 4. /Contents 3 0 R Predicate calculus: area of logic dealing with predicates and quanti ers. Each variable is assigned to a nonempty subset of D (allowable substitutions). •_:%P¥’ Ú²,gñ=‹¯CÈÓ�ò[èÚ¾fùœ±YÎîXæe$F]I�”ÕşkS¤$Èâ‚\T¼z+ôØB%ÒØdZ9záw¼…�'íQ¦r|şÑ¬«½ÆŸp”ÆT~ãmşØĞ~ŠlÅ‹—½ãšÏË÷¦/›úWaPèÿÓí§i–õ¶|ïÖÕ·L%_úw£S!œ§ı›[’‡4è$h¡�ô‘†à�q Below the Sentence-Level In Propositional Logic, atomic propositions correspond to simple sentences in the object language. In mathematics, 2-place predicates are most frequent. Thus predicates can be true sometimes and false sometimes, depending on the values of their arguments. A predicate is a statement that contains variables (predicate variables) and that may be true or false depending on the values of these variables. A predicate calculus in which the only variables that occur in quantifiers are individual variables is known as a lower (or first-order) predicate calculus. Each constant is assigned to an element of D. 2. 10 0 obj “for all' and “there exists”) Term is – a constant (single individual or concept i.e.,5,john etc. /MediaBox [0 0 595.276 841.89] PROPOSITIONAL CALCULUS Given two numbers, we have various ways of combining them: add them, multiply them, etc. For example, we shall find in predicate logic atomic operands such as csg(C,S,G). << Predicate Calculus Limitation of propositional calculus: no properties of objects and relationships between objects in propositions Use predicates! �Q��-�r�h��.D3�9����ΜA�bT}�u��1��gs��W]�H�{=�z���;=p���߲�m�٦�[� �-qQN��q��p��� ب|����@N�}��#�R�-zb�>-p�9�,Åye�ﳄGx�>�4�S_ݓ��_����j���H3��{o���;�A���#.64���CP�CFu�h�w` �*���. Its standard semantics (the state semantics, giving the standard model) is described in section 4. H‰œ’MOÃ0†9çWø˜æÆùl9v(ÒĞ*qªRÊ`ѵÿŸd«: TÉ�R;yŞ7Î >> Section 1.4 . Chapter 2. Propositional Functions: Example • Let Q(x,y,z) denote the statement ‘x2+y2=z2’ –What is the truth value of Q(3,4,5)? /Filter /FlateDecode The function x 7! Derek Goldrei is Senior Lecturer and Staff Tutor at the Open University and part-time Lecturer in Mathematics at Mansfield College, Oxford, UK. To introduce propositional calculus 2. Predicate calculus is not a panacea for all problems, though. An important part is played by functions which are essential when discussing equations. To introduce the first order predicate calculus, including the syntax of WFFs 3. 1. �4�ڔ=�,;tSS��|̅���Y8Uٵe3U~-�Uii�Km�u_�������� ET�L�٨�q:�u6�-����Yt$��1�Ӑ��=�dsϳ@�Z2����T�'�����j*�h.�NeH9D��������q����R���-_���ʩ�N��~���z[�����ƭ����=��c�aÊg? /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] �2�Smb����Nc$�bg��sk�|4]q��(�M]O1��F�]�V�y�4ɛj`�I�נ��֗�'���|d����t-���W��:�n9��ZD�z�k_G�I�}���1�M�FR�~�m�bO�ge���@���r������c?6�N|ΦC�9WMkMx?�����O�s�/����,5�qH��S�����W��U?��:@���tQ���e��]Q?��C�x�ixHDar S��s���3��b�^Or��N`�?���$��W��j�s�g����d`�(l/��� _M�f Common examples are = (‘is equal to’), <(‘is smaller than’), 2(‘is an element of’). 79 Since a predicate takes value true or false once instantiated (that is, once its variables are taking values), we may alternatively say that a predicate instantiated becomes a proposition. %PDF-1.4 xڝT�n�@��W�$ogޏc"�ߢ���ì���5;���0���++������~�0B�b�I��2�)R7�����r����7�7Ok�c�-_1�p���.ňf�uwOI�?o �4y�S��IpVcؐo8$p鈲(���n�2�8��6_n�A0�0��ch��d,���]v��8����n7׻W�BX��~B��ʢW\}ʂPG��a���ΉE��� Predicate Calculus It has three more logical notions as compared to propositional calculus. >> 2 0 obj << Lecture 16 The Predicate Calculus: The Existential Quantifier Preable • Before going over these notes: Complete all assignments associated with Lecture 15. /Contents 10 0 R Outline 1 6.1 Gentzen Proof System G 2 6.2 Hilbert Proof System H. 6.1 Gentzen Proof System G • As in propositional logic, Gentzen proof system is based on the reversal of a semantic tableau for a formula. �DT��D"6��FQ�kD����6,��>1ȷ���k��[AyV��C�s�=���_Ƣn�����Qix����f�1�׉�83�����n� �l6��C�1H��[?�͹�Fߖ~� 5. >> endobj Predicate Calculus . endobj 9 0 obj << A predicate with variables can be made a proposition by either assigning a value to the variable or by quantifying the variable. Hence, besides terms, predicates, and quanti ers, predicate calculus contains propositional variables, constants and connectives as part of the language. /Length 1093 Reviews. 3203. A predicate becomes a proposition when we assign it xed values. In predicate logic, the smallest unit to which we can assign a truth value is a predicate P(t 1;t 2;:::;t n) applied to terms. /Parent 7 0 R d�m��{�u�"ϼKל��CV�}�w���v�qs Lecture 15 The Predicate Calculus: The Universal Quantifier Preable • Before going over these notes: Complete all assignments associated with Lecture 14. The great leap forward was to extend the logic to encompass relations as well as properties. But we cannot arbitrarily assign a truth value, as we did for propositional atoms. predicate calculus Russell Impagliazzo, with assistence from Cameron Helm November 3, 2013 1 Warning This lecture goes somewhat beyond Russell’s expertise, so he might make mis- takes. 4 Types of Logic Logics are characterized by what they commit to as “primitives” Ontological commitment: What exists: facts? time? Since atomic propositions are the smallest elements of the system, simple sentences are the smallest parts of the object language that we can represent in our metalanguage. Structures represent the atomic propositions of predicate calculus , and their general form is functor (parameter list) ex: parent(X,Y) where X and Y are term1 and term2 The functor is any atom and is used to identify the structure. We can also take the negative or absolute value or square of a single number, and apply various functions to a given number. There needs to be some consistency. H‰¤V]�ã4å9¿Â¼9um'vBvŠ "Ò>LyğtÜ6K›tóÁÌş{®¿Òt˜¶£E•òáÆ×÷œsï±oÊhş�#†ÊuDÑŒ§$Ë3äo ΉD‚IR r_˜_»‰æ?ıÉЦƒ�rİãÛ˜¥øsFÓÿÚlªÕñ_å/Ñm}2‹IÉH�f”¤æŠÒ,‡Us”%”$ghµ�nÑübÑügs¹¹ûÑÜ¿¡¾t´x‡¾ŠnÑÑ�A‘�(XF8Èß 2—„q”¥ŒˆtÄkJ(åÅ]Ûš®ê«¦V;Èšxg²6 R\¬ÎõĞÄfB"±®›a³5Ïî7Sr�­î:÷Q×-{]÷áB«­ûZu–¤yÉ舚ôÃ%QM\�¨‚—”eqùñ"~6H*ò\Üã÷&Õ&¦  OğıcuûÙ¡ª‡ıƒn=­nµ§§s”(÷zh«½ÿg§Ú˜3¼Ñ>f¿Uu˜®¨�˜\E/)Éø—Ã÷Ó_Ç_nCÒÕ¾ê�ÚÍÚ§T\ÎHBFTø>±ÕU ”QJñû¹‹Áa&|ô.ÂÏ6á;§~x»qÿ½`~üûç7RY¸lB‰›ÚšF=‡D¤9¡n.~ózIJXfçÜcu8´�ZmuçÚˆ•Ù´…ÔØu©�Ñóg0lU²òãìë²L>‘. /Filter /FlateDecode endobj Various lower predicate calculi have been constructed. %âãÏÓ Predicate Logic (First-Order Logic (FOL), Predicate Calculus) The Language of Quantifiers Logical Equivalences Nested Quantifiers Translation from Predicate Logic to English Translation from English to Predicate Logic. }9֯�i�������/�t�"WxC��@͹�mJ\�3�rj�!��ΖF�=�CJQ��T����9d˸� �x�� ��6�L�5���@���ɯ��M�AK��P��jpoe"2!� ��� >> We need to assign values to variables in appropriate contexts, and meanings to functions and predicates. . •If there are n people and m locations, representing the fact that some person moved from one location to another requires nm2 separate symbols. To introduce resolution-refutation theorem proving, including unification and conversion to clause form I. 6. However, another way to make a predicate into a proposition is to quantify it. /Resources 8 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode Predicate calculus is a generalization of propositional calculus. 22. 1 0 obj << CSI2101 Discrete Structures Winter 2010: Predicate LogicLucia Moura. >> Outline 1 5.1 Relations and Predicates 2 5.2 Predicate Formulas 3 5.3 Interpretations 4 5.4 Equivalence and Substitution 5 5.5 Semantic Tableaux 6 5.7 Finite and Infinite Models 7 5.8 Undecidability of the Predicate … Propositional Logic vs Predicate Calculus. endstream b) In fact, predicate calculus is the formal basis of Prolog. 10 0 obj << Predicates in language and mathematics Let us discuss predicates a bit further, since their variety is so important to predicate logic. Dalam predicate calculus di atas, pengetahuan yang tersirat adalah : Jika dua orang pria menyukai wanita yang sama, maka kedua pria itu pasti tidak saling suka (saling membenci). >> �r�u =`���t��S����k��u�-r���"�M��W2w����M��s� \f/l��kb��nƯ�S��d�A�|$[��%��\���EFM xڵW[��6~�_a� ��� 6зTڴ�T�Q�-Ƀ��+f1l����`g6��l��w�s�aGP?�H�3T�����3o'�$"��$�۽�=����ngNS��4����{��f�&�s���Q�SV��DŽ����WoH��J8&E����d'Ѷ_㼈^��4��i����(�y&��[�����ػ�Z�jP����o��0 /F4 5 0 R 3. Lecture 5: Predicate Calculus Predicate Logic The Language Semantics: Structures 1. Predicate calculus is a very common basis for the construction of logical calculi intended for the description of fragments of some concrete mathematical theory. Predicates The truth value of a predicate can be expressed as a function of the variables, for example: “x is an odd number” can be expressed as P(x). Then read carefully Sections 7.3, 7.4, and 7.5 of Chapter 7 of the textbook (‘The Predicate Calculus’). stream /Font << /F17 4 0 R /F18 5 0 R /F15 6 0 R >> >> 2 0 obj Introduction to Artificial Intelligence. Example Prove that |= (∀x p(x)∨∀x q(x)) → ∀x (p(x)∨q(x)) Solution: We will start by constructing a tableau fo This will become obvious in the a subsequent series of lectures (on Prolog). << Predicates are functions of zero or more variables that return Boolean values. Introduction The predicate calculus is an extension of the propositional calculus that includes the notion of quantification. stream In 6 Prop. That is, the predicate is true (or false) for all possible values in the universe of discourse or for some value(s) in the universe of discourse. “The distance between cities x and y is less than z miles” Represented by a predicate … stream So, the statement P(5) is the same as "5 is an odd number”. /Parent 7 0 R He’s happy to answer questions, but he might have to repeat the ques-tions to more of an expert. the constant, variable, predicate, and function symbols of a predicate calculus expression: 1. /Length 1226 a) Predicate calculus formulas can easily be represented using the programming languages widely used in AI (LISP and Prolog). /T10 6 0 R %���� Instead of dealing only with statements, which have a definite truth-value, we deal with the more general notion ofpredicates, which are assertions in whichvariablesappear. • Note: Although these lecture notes mirror the discussion from the textbook, they do not replace the textbook (or vice versa). /Filter /FlateDecode Propositional logic is not powerful enough to express statements such as For every number there is a prime larger than that number. /Font << stream 3. >> endobj Publisher’s PDF, also known as Version of Record (includes final page, issue and volume numbers) ... of predicate calculus is described in section 3, together with the format in which deductions are presented in the predicate calculus style. 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Specific domain assignments associated with lecture 15 • Before going over these notes: Complete assignments...
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